@signsofyouridentity

Signs of Your Identity

Investigating the legacy of forced assimilation policies on Indigenous children. Currently focused on US, Canada, Australia. Work by @dzalcman.

http://signsofyouridentity.com/

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The remains of Hayworth Hall at the Chilocco Indian School, which operated in northern Oklahoma from 1884-1980. It was one of five off-reservation boarding schools authorized by Congress in 1882 — the others were Carlisle (PA), Haskell (KS), Chemawa (OR), and Fort Simcoe (WA). The campus is still largely intact and is now managed by 5 local tribes (the Kaw Nation, Otoe-Missouria Tribe, Pawnee Nation, Ponca Nation, and Tonkawa Tribe). In the past few years, it’s been used for federal law enforcement training, as a substance abuse rehab center, and briefly was considered for Homeland Security biochemical attack testing, though that plan was later abandoned after widespread protests. #signsofyouridentity @insidenatgeo @opensocietyfoundations

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Chemawa was the second Indian Boarding School established in the United States (after Carlisle), and still operates to this day in Salem, OR. This cemetery is one of the only remaining parts of the original campus, which once was its own self-sufficient city, complete with a hospital, post office, dairy farm, and bakery. The cemetery holds about 200 marked graves, but a Northern Cheyenne grad student used ground penetrating radar recently to discover that there were hundreds — if not thousands — more unmarked graves in the vicinity. #signsofyouridentity

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An illustration of the Sacred Heart Mission in Cataldo, Idaho by Father Pierre Jean De Smet, a Jesuit missionary who purportedly traveled 180,000 miles across North America establishing missions in Native communities (with mixed results). #signsofyouridentity

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Some light embellishment in Germaine’s 1983 Phoenix Indian School yearbook. #signsofyouridentity

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Peach Springs, AZ. #signsofyouridentity

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Lisa Schrader (Lakota) went to both St. Joe’s Indian School and Red Cloud Indian School in South Dakota. “Healing requires acknowledgement,” she said. “And when we were taken away from our homes and we lost our language and we lost our culture and we lost our identity, no one ever told us, ‘Welcome home. I’m glad you made it back.’” #signsofyouridentity

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I think I could start an entire project just on archival photos of Indian boarding school sports teams. Here’s one of the Sherman Institute football team (date unknown) currently on display in the Sherman Indian Museum. #signsofyouridentity

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Going through some collected archival photos sitting on my desktop and came across this jarring image of students practicing penmanship at the Red Deer Indian Industrial School in Alberta, Canada. The school operated from 1889-1919. #signsofyouridentity

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Holy Family Mission, c. 1886. Blackfeet Reservation, Montana.

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The Fort Shaw Indian School girls’ basketball team at the 1904 World’s Fair. They performed mandolin recitals, demonstrations of gymnastics and calisthenics, and became World Champions. (📷: Jessie Tarbox Beals, Montana History Museum)

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The cemetery of the Holy Family Mission, which originally opened as a Catholic boarding school on the Blackfeet Reservation in 1889. The school closed in the early 1940s. #signsofyouridentity

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This is Willie Stevens, a Salish man who attended the Villa Ursula mission school as a day student from 1964-1972. “I come from the generation that lost its language and cultural identity. My parents didn’t want to teach us the language because they knew it would only hurt us. They knew we’d get in trouble at boarding school. So they tried to protect us. They even cut our hair.” #signsofyouridentity @opensocietyfoundations @insidenatgeo

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The site of the Battle of the Greasy Grass, also known as the Battle of the Little Bighorn. #signsofyouridentity

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Boys and girls wash clothes at the Crow Agency boarding school. Photo by Fred E. Miller, from roughly 1890-1900. #signsofyouridentity

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A group of Native Alaskan boarding school survivors tour what remains of the campus of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania. Carlisle was the first government run off-reservation Indian boarding school in America, and became the model for scores of similar institutions in the U.S. and Canada. This month marks the 100th anniversary since its closing. Roughly 12,000 students attended in the years it was open from 1879-1918, many of whom were taken from their communities and families by force. A cemetery on the grounds of what is now an Army facility contains the graves of 184 students who died while in attendance. #signsofyouridentity #carlisle #carlisleindianindustrialschool

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This is Dawn Neptune Adams, a Penobscot woman who spent about 16 of her first 18 years in foster care in the state of Maine. One of her earliest memories of the foster home where she spent most of her childhood was having her foster mother violently brush her teeth with soap when she spoke a few words of Penobscot. “People often ask what reconciliation looks like to me,” Dawn said. “But there can be no reconciliation as long as the behavior continues. Our children are still being placed in non-Native foster homes. And it’s a washing away of our identity.” #signsofyouridentity #maine #penobscot

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Inside one of the few structures that remain of the Fort Hall Indian School, which operated from 1904-1935 for Shoshone-Bannock children on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho. The buildings were later used to house German prisoners of war during WW2, and most of the campus was demolished in the 60s. #signsofyouridentity

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Mt. Alyeska. #signsofyouridentity

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